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Submitted: 13 September 2017 Modified: 13 September 2017

Herdin Record #: PCHRD1709131340050

Surgical simulation of endoscopic sinus surgery usng theil soft-embalmed human cadever.


1Precious Eunice R. Grullo Author
2Harivelle Charmaine T. Hernando Author
3Ryner Jose D. Carrillo Chairman
4Pio Renato  F. Villacorta Author
5Josefino G. Hernandez Author
6Ramon Antonio B. Lopa Author
7Arsenio Claro A. Cabungcal Author
8Jupiter Kelly H. Barroa Author

Publication Information

Publication Type:
Publication Sub Type:
Journal Article, Original
Acta Medica Philippina
Publication Date:
University of the Philippines Manila


OBJECTIVE: This study describes the quality of Thiel soft-embalmed cadavers as training model for endoscopic sinus surgery in terms of color and consistency of the tissues and similarity of performing the surgical steps to live surgery.

METHODS: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study. Six Thiel soft-embalmed cadavers from the University of the Philippines, College of Medicine, Department of Anatomy were used as training models. The Thiel-preserved cadavers utilized the soft embalming protocol being employed at the Virginia State Anatomical Program in Richmond, Virginia, USA. Ten otorhinolaryngologists were recruited to evaluate the cadavers using a questionnaire with three parts. The first two parts utilize a 10-point Likert scale with 1 as the least similar to live patient while 10 as simulating the live patient. The third part is an open-ended question regarding the suitability of Thiel soft-embalmed cadavers in the training for endoscopic sinus surgery.

RESULTS: Endoscopic sinus surgery was successfully performed in all cadavers. The Thiel soft-embalmed cadaver closely replicates the color and consistency of the anatomic structures important in endoscopic sinus surgery. All the surgical steps were performed with ease simulating live surgery.

CONCLUSION: Thiel soft-embalmed cadaver is a suitable model for training in endoscopic sinus surgery.

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